Vendredi 1er octobre 2021
la lettre d'information du site N°202
Si vous ne voyez pas les images, cliquez ici pour lire cette lettre dans votre navigateur.
If you cannot see pictures below, to view the email in your web browser click here est libre d'accès, base documentaire pour comprendre, chercher, travailler

Yawning Is More Contagious in Pregnant Than Nulliparous Women:
Naturalistic and Experimental Evidence
Norscia I, Agostini L, Moroni A, Caselli M,
Micheletti-Cremasco M, Vardé C, Palagi E
Tous les articles sur la contagion du bâillement
All articles about contagious yawning

Pregnant women were most likely to respond to others' yawns
Contrary to spontaneous yawning, which is widespread in vertebrates and probably evolutionary ancient, contagious yawning-yawning triggered by others' yawns-is considered an evolutionarily recent phenomenon, found in species characterized by complex sociality. Whether the social asymmetry observed in the occurrence of contagious yawning is related to social and emotional attachment and may therefore reflect emotional contagion is a subject of debate. In this study the authors assessed whether yawn contagion was enhanced in pregnant women, a cohort of subjects who develop prenatal emotional attachment in preparation for parental care, via hormonal and neurobiological changes. They predicted that if yawn contagion underlies social and emotional attachment, pregnant women would be more likely to contagiously yawn than nonpregnant, nulliparous women of reproductive age. They gathered data in two different settings.
In the experimental setting, 49 women were exposed to video stimuli of newborns either yawning or moving their mouth (control) and we video-recorded the women during repeated trials to measure their yawning response. In the naturalistic setting, 131 women were observed in a social environment and their yawning response was recorded. They tested the factors influencing the yawning response, including the reproductive status (pregnant vs. not pregnant). In both settings, yawn contagion occurred significantly more in pregnant than nonpregnant women. By showing that pregnant women were most likely to respond to others' yawns, these results support the hypothesis that the social variation observed in yawn contagion may be influenced by emotional attachment and that yawning in highly social species might have been coopted for emotional contagion during evolution.
Les femmes enceintes sont plus sensibles à la contagion des bâillements
Contrairement au bâillement spontané, qui est répandu chez tous les vertébrés donc phylogénétiquement ancien, le bâillement contagieux - le bâillement déclenché par les bâillements des autres - est considéré comme un phénomène évolutif récent, trouvé chez les espèces caractérisées par une socialité complexe. La question est de savoir si l'asymétrie sociale observée dans la survenue du bâillement contagieux est liée à l'attachement social et émotionnel et peut donc refléter une contagion émotionnelle. Dans cette étude, les auteurs ont évalué si la contagion du bâillement était augmentée chez les femmes enceintes, c'est à dire des sujets qui développent un attachement émotionnel prénatal en préparation aux soins parentaux, via des changements hormonaux et neurobiologiques.
Ils ont prédit que si la contagion du bâillement sous-tend l'attachement social et émotionnel, les femmes enceintes seraient plus susceptibles de bâiller de manière contagieuse que les femmes nullipares non enceintes et en âge de procréer. Ils ont collecté des données dans deux contextes différents. Dans le cadre expérimental, 49 femmes ont été exposées à des stimuli vidéo de nouveau-nés bâillant ou bougeant la bouche (témoin) et ils ont enregistré les femmes lors d'essais répétés pour mesurer leur réponse au bâillement. Dans le cadre naturalel, 131 femmes ont été observées dans leur environnement social et leur réponse de bâillements a été enregistrée. Les auteurs ont testé les facteurs influençant la réponse au bâillement, y compris le statut reproducteur (enceinte vs non enceinte). Dans les deux cas, la contagion du bâillement s'est produite significativement plus chez les femmes enceintes que chez les femmes non enceintes. En montrant que les femmes enceintes étaient les plus susceptibles de réagir aux bâillements des autres, ces résultats soutiennent l'hypothèse que la variation sociale observée dans la contagion du bâillement peut être influencée par l'attachement émotionnel et que le bâillement chez les espèces hautement sociales pourrait avoir favorisé la contagion émotionnelle au cours de l'évolution.

Antidepressant-Induced Yawning
Khawaja H, Sanjel A,
Upadhyay E, Khawaja IS
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord
2021; 23(2): 20l02713
Bâillements et dépression
Yawning and depression
Yawning as a side-effect of antidepressant therapy
Le bâillement, un effet secondaire
des traitements antidépresseurs

Yawning: unusual and uncommon side effect of antidepressant medication
Yawning is a very unusual and uncommon side effect of antidepressant medications.There are reports of excessive yawning caused by several antidepressant medications, including duloxetine, clomipramine, fluoxetine, citalopram, sertraline, and paroxetine.
Research has also suggested an increased rate of yawning in patients taking antidepressants compared to placebos. In most case reports, there was no direct relationship between yawning and daytime sleepiness. The authors report a case of a patient who developed yawning with every antidepressant she was prescribed, resulting in discontinuation of the medication.
Ms A is a 41-year-old married white woman who had a history of social anxiety disorder. She worked as a teacher and had extreme difficulty with her job because of social anxiety symptoms. Her anxiety symptoms included increased heart rate and feelings of panic whenever she had to present in front of her class. Anxiety would even be severe when she had to present at regular staff meetings. She was on oral alprazolam 0.5 mg/d as needed for anxiety at the time of her first visit to our clinic and stated that she could not tolerate any antidepressants.
Before Ms A was seen in our clinic, she was prescribed several antidepressants but developed yawning spells. The list of antidepressants she tried is as follows: fluoxetine, sertraline, escitalopram, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, and bupropion. She stated that she developed yawning within the first 2 weeks of a trial with fluoxetine 10 mg. She described that she would have an irresistible urge to yawn. She did not feel tired or sleepy and had to yawn every few seconds. She felt irritated and could not stop yawning. Yawning stopped after 2 weeks within discontinuing fluoxetine. She had a similar pattern of yawning with each antidepressant she tried.
Ms A reported that antidepressants helped her anxiety symptoms, but she could not function as a teacher because of the constant and irresistible yawning. She did not remember each antidepressant's dose but stated that she would develop yawning at the smallest dose of each medication within the first 2 weeks. The yawning would stop immediately within a couple of days of discontinuing the antidepressant, but with fluoxetine it took 2 weeks for the yawning to stop after discontinuation. Ms A felt that the frequency and intensity of yawning correlated with increased doses of the antidepressant medications.
Ms A reported that yawning was not associated with daytime sleepiness or fatigue. She also denied having an insufficient sleep, as she would get up to 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night.
Ms A denied any depressive symptoms of sad mood or anhedonia. She denied any lack of energy. However, excessive yawning did affect her breathing. Frequent yawning caused "shortness of breath." The patient reported feelings of light suffocation and needed deep air gasps. These yawning spells were frequent throughout the day. She reported no physical distress but admitted to having psychological stress, as the yawning affected work productivity.
She did not want to try another antidepressant and wished to continue a small dose of a benzodiazepine, as she felt it helped her. She was switched to clonazepam 0.5 mg twice/day, as alprazolam is short acting and did not control her anxiety throughout the day.
On clonazepam 0.5 mg, she reported significant improvement in her social anxiety symptoms and was able to teach her classes. Also, she was able to present at school meetings, which was very difficult without the medication. She reported no side effects on clonazepam, including yawning.
This case illustrates that antidepressants can cause side effects that are not common but can cause distress in patients' lives. Yawning should be recognized as an adverse effect of certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressant medications. In our patient's case, she tried several antidepressant medications but could not continue because of yawning. Also, she described some subtle shortness of breath.
The relationship between antidepressants and yawning has been described previously.3 Yawning is a natural reaction that occurs during transit from wakefulness to sleep.3 Studies2 have shown that yawning can occur when the body is experiencing a state of increased fatigue and a change of alertness. Yawning has been thought to be associated with depression because of the common symptom of increased sleepiness and fatigue. Patients who have depression typically have sleep problems and tiredness leading to increased yawning. Yawning is common during episodes of fatigue and increases when the environmental stimuli can no longer provide arousal. Antidepressants taken by patients with depression can also be a source of excessive yawning. Antidepressants have been shown to increase yawning in several studies.
Although yawning is considered benign, it interfered with our patient's daily activities and work life. Her intense symptoms immediately stopped after discontinuing each antidepressant medication.
Yawning is a complex neurophysiologic process with unclear physiologic functions. The relationship between antidepressants and yawning is unclear but may be related to the effects of many different neurotransmitters.4
In our patient, discontinuation of antidepressants led to the cessation of yawning within a few days. In the case of fluoxetine, yawning stopped after 2 weeks of discontinuation.
It is interesting that Ms A tried several antidepressants and developed yawning with all of them that affected her functioning. We acknowledge that we had to rely on the patient's description and clinical history, as she was not prescribed antidepressants while in treatment at our clinic. Further studies are needed to investigate and confirm the mechanism of how these medications cause yawning.
1. De Las Cuevas C, Sanz EJ Duloxetine-induced excessive disturbing and disabling yawning. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27(1):106-107.
 2. Hensch T, Blume A, Böttger D, Sander C, Niedermeier N, Hegerl U. Yawning in Depression: Worth Looking Into. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2015;48(3):118-120
3. -Argiolas A, Melis MR The neuropharmacology of yawning Eur J Pharmacol 1998;343(1):1-16

Smiling, Yawning, Jaw Functional Limitations and Oral Behaviors With Respect to General Health Status in Patients With Temporomandibular Disorder-Myofascial Pain With Referral
Ku J, Szarejko KD, Gobiewska M.
Front Neurol
Yawning and stomatology
Bâillements et stomatologie

Temporo mandibular pains predict depression and stress
The temporomandibular joint is the one of the most important joints in the human body. It enables numerous orofacial functions such as mastication, swallowing, breathing, speech, emotional communication, and facial expressions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of jaw functional limitations and oral behaviors with respect to general health status in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders&emdash;myofascial pain with referral.
The study group consisted of 50 individuals (37 females and 13 males) with complete natural dentition. The average age was 23.36 years with ± 0.30 as a standard error. All subjects underwent clinical examination and were diagnosed with myofascial pain with referral according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. The survey was conducted in connection with the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale-8 (JFLS-8), Jaw Functional Limitation Scale-20 (JFLS-20), Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), and Oral Behaviors Checklist (OBC).
The most common functional problems in the entire study group were chewing tough food and yawning. In terms of gender, statistically significant differences were noted for chewing tough food and smiling (p = 0.015451; p = 0.035978, respectively). With respect to Bonferroni correction and Benjamini-Hochberg procedure, the observed differences were not statistically significant. There were no statistically considerable differences in mastication, mandibular mobility, verbal and emotional communication, or global limitations (p0.05). Over half (56%) of the respondents had depression of varying severity. Somatic symptoms of different severity were found in 78% of the patients, and 44% of the respondents declared anxiety disorders. The score of the Oral Behavior Checklist (OBC = 27.18) highlighted a high tendency for developing craniomandibular disorders.
Patients with myofascial pain with referral, demonstrated a disturbed biopsychosocial profile. The restrictions in yawning and smiling as well as limitations in mastication, mobility, verbal and emotional communication, and global limitations appear to be significant predictors of craniomandibular dysfunction. Depression, stress, and somatic disorders are important factors predisposing patients to the occurrence of myofascial pain with referral. The progression of oral behaviors may indicate the role of somatosensory amplification.
Les douleurs temporo-mandibuiares en bâillant prédisent souvent la dépression et le stress
L'articulation temporo-mandibulaire est l'une des articulations les plus importantes du corps humain. Elle permet de nombreuses fonctions orofaciales telles que la mastication, la déglutition, la respiration, la parole, la communication émotionnelle et les expressions faciales. Le but de l'étude était d'évaluer la prévalence des limitations fonctionnelles de la mâchoire et des comportements oraux en ce qui concerne l'état de santé général chez les patients atteints de troubles de l'articulation temporo-mandibulaire-douleur myofasciale avec référence.
Le groupe d'étude était composé de 50 individus (37 femmes et 13 hommes) avec une denture naturelle complète. L'âge moyen était de 23,36 ans avec ± 0,30 comme erreur standard. Tous les sujets ont subi un examen clinique et ont reçu un diagnostic de douleur myofasciale avec référence selon les critères diagnostiques des troubles temporo-mandibulaires. L'enquête a été menée en lien avec la Jaw Functional Limitation Scale-8 (JFLS-8), la Jaw Functional Limitation Scale-20 (JFLS-20), le Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), le Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ -9), Trouble d'anxiété généralisée-7 (TAG-7), Questionnaire de santé du patient-15 (PHQ-15) et Liste de contrôle des comportements oraux (OBC).
Les problèmes fonctionnels les plus courants dans l'ensemble du groupe d'étude étaient la mastication d'aliments durs et le bâillement. En termes de sexe, des différences statistiquement significatives ont été notées pour la mastication des aliments durs et le sourire (p = 0,015451; p = 0,035978, respectivement). En ce qui concerne la correction de Bonferroni et la procédure de Benjamini-Hochberg, les différences observées n'étaient pas statistiquement significatives. Il n'y avait pas de différences statistiquement considérables dans la mastication, la mobilité mandibulaire, la communication verbale et émotionnelle ou les limitations globales (p0,05). Plus de la moitié (56 %) des répondants souffraient de dépression de gravité variable. Des symptômes somatiques de gravité différente ont été retrouvés chez 78% des patients et 44% des répondants ont déclaré des troubles anxieux. Le score de l'Oral Behavior Checklist (OBC = 27,18) a mis en évidence une forte tendance à développer des troubles cranio-mandibulaires.
Les patients souffrant de douleur myofasciale ont montré un profil biopsychosocial perturbé. Les restrictions dans le bâillement et le sourire ainsi que les limitations dans la mastication, la mobilité, la communication verbale et émotionnelle et les limitations globales semblent être des prédicteurs significatifs de la dysfonction cranio-mandibulaire. La dépression, le stress et les troubles somatiques sont des facteurs importants prédisposant les patients à la survenue de douleurs myofasciales avec référence. La progression des comportements oraux peut indiquer le rôle de l'amplification somatosensorielle.

Le bâillement, du réflexe à la pathologie
Le bâillement : de l'éthologie à la médecine clinique
Le bâillement : phylogenèse, éthologie, nosogénie
 Le bâillement : un comportement universel
La parakinésie brachiale oscitante
Yawning: its cycle, its role
Warum gähnen wir ?
Fetal yawning assessed by 3D and 4D sonography
Le bâillement foetal
Le bâillement, du réflexe à la pathologie
Le bâillement : de l'éthologie à la médecine clinique
Le bâillement : phylogenèse, éthologie, nosogénie
 Le bâillement : un comportement universel
La parakinésie brachiale oscitante
Yawning: its cycle, its role
Warum gähnen wir ?
Fetal yawning assessed by 3D and 4D sonography
Le bâillement foetal

Autres documents mis en ligne ce mois-ci :

Recherche par mot du site

avec l'aide de FreeFind
écrits et réalisés par
le Dr Walusinski
To unsubscribe - Pour se désabonner
lire les lettres précédentes d'information du site