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Yawning: A behavioural marker of sleepiness in de novo PD patients
Giganti F, Guidi S, Ramat S,
Zilli I, Raglione LM, Sorbi S, Salzarulo P.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord
Yawning: an aura for an L Dopa induced "off" in Parkinson diesease
Goren JL Friedmann JH
Yawning in Parkinson's disease
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneously injected apomorphine for parkinsonian off-state events
Dewey RB Jr, Hutton JT, LeWitt PA, Factor SA
Arch Neurol
Drugs affecting dopamine neurons and yawning behavior
Mogilnicka E, Klimek V
Pharmacol Biochem Behav

Do we yawn when affected by Parkinson's disease ? not always.
In healthy subjects, yawning usually occurs with increasing sleepiness, possibly in order to counteract low levels of arousal. Excessive daytime sleepiness is a frequent complaint in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and sleepiness could be an initial manifestation preceding other symptoms. As a consequence, PD patients might experience an increase in yawning frequency, mainly of yawning bursts, which are an index of yawning production intensity.
In this study, the authors argue the a quick succession of yawns represents the effort of PD patients trying to remain alert and awake. However, there is a lot of affected patients who did not yawn. Their yawns appear after apomorphine's injection.
paul richer
La Parkinsonnienne par Paul Richer (1849-1933)
Bâille-t-on quand on est affecté de la maladie de Parkinson ? Pas toujours.
Chez les sujets sains, l'augmentation de la somnolence est source de bâillements, peut-être afin de stimuler la vigilance. La somnolence diurne excessive est une plainte fréquente chez les patients atteints de la maladie de Parkinson (PD) et la somnolence des Parkinsonniens pourrait être un symptôme initial en précédant d'autres.
En conséquence, les parkinsoniens peuvent constater une augmentation de la fréquence de leurs bâillements, souvent en salves, qui témoignent de l'importance de la somnolence. Au cours de cette étude, les auteurs ont confirmé cette hypothèse d'une tentative de stimulation de la vigilance en bâillant. Il exitse néanmoins des parkinsoniens qui ne bâillent plus et voient leurs bâillements réapparaitre après injection d'apomorphine.
-Giganti F, Hayes MJ, Akilesh MR, Salzarulo P. Yawning and behavioral states in premature infants. Dev Psychobiol. 2002;41(3):289-96.
-Giganti F, Hayes MJ Cioni G, Salzarulo P Yawning frequency and distribution in preterm and near term infants assessed throughout 24-h recordings Infant Behav & Development 2007;30(4):641-647
-Giganti F, Ziello ME Contagious and spontaneous yawning in autistic and typically developing children CPL 2009
-Giganti F, Zilli I. The daily time course of contagious and spontaneous yawning among humans. J Ethol 2011;29(2):215-216
-Giganti F, Zilli I, Aboudan S, Salzarulo P. Sleep, sleepiness and yawning. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2010;28:42-6.
-Giganti F, Salzarulo P. Yawning throughout life. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2010;28:26-31
-Giganti F, Toselli M, Ramat S. Developmental trends in a social behaviour: contagious yawning in the elderly. Giornale di Psicologia dello Sviluppo. 2012;101:111-117
Giganti F, Guidi S, Ramat S, Zilli I, Raglione LM, Sorbi S, Salzarulo P. Yawning: A behavioural marker of sleepiness in de novo PD patients. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013
-Zilli I, Giganti F, Salzarulo P. Yawning in morning and evening types. Physiol Behav 2007;91(2-3):218-222
-Zilli I, Giganti F, Uga V. Yawning and subjective sleepiness in the ederly. J Sleep Res 2008;17:3003-308

Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal:
an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns
Buttner AP, Strasser R.
Animal Cognition
2013, in press

Yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function
Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal.
The authors investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. They took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion.
They interpret the findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal.
yawning contagiosiness by dogs
Les bâillements entre humains et chiens peuvent représenter une forme de communication
Les articles parus récemment concernant la contagion du bâillement du maître à son chien ont apporté des données contradictoires, c'est à dire certaines en faveur d'un processus socio-cognitif (théorie de l'esprit, empathie comme entre humains), d'autres évoquant seulement l'effet inducteur de stress du chien par le bâillement du maître. Cet article tente d'apporter une clarification en mesurant les modifications des niveaux du cortisol salivaire de chiens observant des baillements humains. Hélas pas de clarification, car le contexte semble l'élément discriminatif essentiel. Le bâillement du chien est un marqueur de l'état de stress du chien que les bâillements du maître contribuent à augmenter...
-Harr AL, Gilbert VR Do dogs show contagious yawning ? Anim Cogn. 2009;12(6):833-837
-Joly-Mascheroni RM, Senju A, Sheperd AJ Dogs catch human yawns Biology letters Animal Behaviour 2008;4(5):446-448
-Lindsay SR Coping with fear and stress: licking and yawning. Handbook of applied dog behavior and training 2000 
-Madsen EA, Persson T. Contagious yawning in domestic dog puppies (Canis lupus familiaris): the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on low-level imitation in dogs. Anim Cogn. 2012
-O'Hara SJ, Reeve AV A test of the yawning contagion and emotional connectedness hypothesis in dogs, Canis familiaris. Animal Behaviour 2011;81:335-340
-Perkins JR Teaching Dogs to Yawn, Sneeze, and Implications for Preparedness Theory and Observational Learning. In: Kusonose, Ryo and Sato, Shusuke 39th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, Kanagawa, Japan. 20-24 August, 2005
-Silva K, Bessa J, de Sousa L. Auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): first evidence for social modulation. Anim Cogn. 2012.

Medication discovery for addiction:
translating the dopamine D3 receptor hypothesis
Newman AH, Blaylock BL, Nader MA, Bergman J,
Sibley DR, Skolnick P
Biochem Pharmacol.
Gregory T. Collins
Neuropharmacology of Yawning
Collins GT, Eguibar JR
The Mystery of Yawning
in Physiology and Disease
Front Neurol Neurosci.
Basel, Karger, 2010;28:90-106
Editor: Walusinski O.

Dopamine D3 receptor as a potential target for medication development to treat substance abuse disorders  
Although in vitro assays aid in identifying receptor-selectivity and efficacy to guide medicinal chemistry efforts to obtain highly selective and potent drug-like molecules, in vivo assessments are necessary to corroborate in vitro findings in order to validate structure&endash;activity relationships.
Seminal reports by Collins et al. demonstrated, in rodents, that a dopamine D2R/D3R agonist will produce an inverted-U function on drug-elicited behavior in which low-doses would elicit yawning and higher doses would produce less yawning and concomitantly induce hypothermia.
Through a series of elegant antagonist studies, it was shown that D3Rs mediate the ascending limb of the drug-elicited yawning curve whereas D2Rs were implicated in the actions described on the descending limb in which yawning was lower and hypothermia was observed. While many neurotransmitter systems contribute to yawning (for review), this simple behavioral assay has been shown to be pharmacologically sensitive to D3R-selective compounds, thus making it a suitable framework for determining the selectivity and efficacy of novel compounds in vivo.
D3R- and D2R-elicited yawning and hypothermia, respectively, have recently been validated in nonhuman primates and employed to understand how a pharmacological history can functionally alter D3Rs.
-Collins GT, JM Witkin et al Dopamine agonist-induced yawning in rats: a dopamine d3 receptor mediated behavior. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005;314(1):310-9.
-Collins GT, Newman AH,Woods JH et al.Yawning and hypothermia in rats: effects of dopamine D3 and D2 agonists and antagonists. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;193(2):159-170
-Collins GT. et al. Food restriction alters pramipexole-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: Evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects. JEPT 2008;325:691-697
-Collins GT et al. Narrowing in on compulsions: dopamine receptor functions Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2008,16(4):498-502
-Collins GT et al. Pro-erectile Effects of Dopamine D2-like Agonists are Mediated by the D3 Receptor in Rats and Mice JPEP 2009;329(1):210-217
-Collins GT, Truong YN, et al. Behavioral sensitization to cocaine in rats: evidence for temporal differences in dopamine D(3) and D (2) receptor sensitivity. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;215(4):609-20.

De Frequentissima ac Praecipua
Oscitationis Cassa
Marcus Wöldike Kall
Nicolai Möller

Toutes les publications en latin

Marcus Wöldike Kall 1752-1817
Marcus-Wöldike Kall, né le 19 septembre 1752 à Copenhague, suivit son cursus scolaire à Randers au Danemark.
Il devient membre de "la société médicale" du lieu en 1774. Il est "licencié" en médecine en 1781.
Cet ouvrage sur le bâillement date de 1775.
Il publie aussi des livres d'obstétrique "De dijudicando ossium parium situ, in dextro aut sinistro c. h. latere" en 1777, puis "Specimen de vitiis conformationis in superiori pelvis apertura: quae dystociam producere valent" en 1778, en collaboration avec Matthias Saxtorph (1740-1800) chez l'éditeur danois Hafniae, Litteris J.R. Thielianis.
On retrouve son nom comme co-auteur sous le titre "De febre intermittente frictione currata" dans le mémoire d'une société savante présenté avec Urbanus Brunt Aaskow "De frictionum usu in febribus intermittentibus" (Acta Reg soc Med Havniensis). On lui doit aussi unVie de Jésus Christ en 1773.
Il meurt le 26 Septembre 1817 à Roskilde où il exerça toute sa vie.
Marcus Wöldike Kall Oscitationis

par Pedro Forza



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Benjamin Lee Whorf
Language, Thought and Reality
"We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native language. Language is not simply a reporting device for experience but a defining framework of it."
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