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The thermoregulatory theory of yawning:
what we know from over 5 years of research
Gallup AC, Eldakar OT.
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology,
University Princeton, NJ, USA.
Front Neurosci.
Yawning and the thermoregulatory hypothesis all the publications

More heat, some light, directions for research by Andrew Gallup
Over the past 5 years, numerous reports, all by Andrew Gallup's team, accredit the idea of the thermoregulatory effect of yawning. Gallup submits here a review of all its publications and discuss arguments challenging opposite opinion. He finds them unfounded and not demonstrated: " Heretofore, no existing alternative hypothesis of yawning can explain these results, which have important implications for understanding the potential functional role of this behavior, both physiologically and socially, in humans and other animals". In discussion he stress the broader applications of this work in clinical settings.
cooling the brain
Une synthèse et une discussion par Andrew Gallup de sa théorie originale
Au cours de ces 5 dernières années, de nombreux travaux, tous de l'équipe d'Andrew Gallup, accréditent l'idée d'un effet de refroidissement du cerveau par le bâillement. Gallup propose ici une revue de toutes ses publications. D'après lui, aucune étude n'est venue contre-dire ses résultats, de façon démontrée. Il discute successivement les arguments émis par chaque contradicteur pour les trouver infondés et non démontrés. Il envisage aussi les conséquences cliniques qui devraient résulter de ses travaux.

Why do we yawn? past and current hypotheses
Walusinski O
pdf free access
From the book
"Hypotheses in Clinical Medicine"
published by Nova Science Publishers
Mohammadali Shoja
R. Shane Tubbs
Mostafa Ghanei
Paul Agutter
Kamyar Ghabili
Nous remercions chaleureusement R. Shane Tubbs de nous avoir donné la possibilité de participer à ce beau travail original.
A Day in the Life: R. Shane Tubbs
Pediatric neurosurgery at Children's Hospital
Birmingham, Alabama. USA

Hypotheses in clinical medicine
Hypotheses are fundamental to all sciences, including medicine. They play a critical role in motivating the development of science, since interesting and important hypotheses foster the diversity and debate upon which the scientific process depends. It is necessary to learn and understand how to assess a process, realize and discuss details and consequently launch a hypothesis.
This book offers a number of novel, non-mainstream hypotheses - in various states of development - from authors with relevant expertise and experience.
For example:
Could Cytomegalovirus be Causing Widespread Outbreaks of Chronic Poor Health?
The Cold Chain Hypothesis: An Update
Reflections on Pellagra: Lessons and Hypotheses for Diseases Ancient and Moder
The Potential Evolutionary Significance of the Pineal Gland
Are the Systemic Arterial Blood, Intracranial and Intraocular Pressures Co-regulated?
House Dust Mites Do Not Live in House Dust: Evidence and Implications for the Current Understanding of House Dust Mite Allergy
hypotheses in clinical medicine
Des hypothèses en médecine clinique
Les hypothèses sont fondamentales pour toutes les sciences, y compris la médecine. Elles jouent un rôle essentiel dans la démarche du progrès scientifique et dans l'instauration d'un débat nécessaire à sa diversité et à son innovation.
Il est, bien sûr, nécessaire d'apprendre et de comprendre comment évaluer un processus hypothétique, réaliser et discuter ses tenants et aboutissants et par conséquent comment formuler une hypothèse.
Cet ouvrage propose un certain nombre de nouvelles hypothèses, hors des raisonnements tardionnels de la médecine, à divers stades de développement, par des auteurs ayant une expertise et une expérience pertinentes dans chaque domaine abordé.
Par exemple: La chaine du froid est-elle la souce de maladies, Les CMV à l'origine de pathologies chroniques etc...

Impaired resonance in offenders with psychopathic traits
Hagenmuller F, Rössler W, Endrass J, Rossegger A, Haker H.
[Article in German]
Forschungsbereich für Klinische und Soziale Psychiatrie, Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Zürich, Schweiz
Contagious and spontaneous
yawning in autistic and
typically developing children
Fiorenza Giganti, Maria Esposito Ziello
Current Psychology Letter
Absence of contagious yawning in chiildren with autism spectrum disorder
Senju A, Maeda M, Kikuchi Y,
Hasegawa T, Tojo Y, Osanai H
Biology Letters
From emotion resonance to empathic understanding: a social developmental neuroscience account
Decety J, Meyer M
Dev Psychopathol
A review of recent reports on autism: 1000 studies published in 2007
Hughes JR
Epilepsy Behav
Absence of Embodied Empathy During Pain Observation in Asperger Syndrome
Minio-Paluello I, Baron-Cohen S,
Avenanti A, Walsh V, Aglioti SM
Biological Psychiatry
Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance
Haker H, Rössler W 
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci

More empathic - more contagion
Resonance is the phenomenon of unconsciously mirroring the motor actions of another person. Beside autism and schizophrenia psychopathic personality traits are associated with empathy dysfunction.
Hagenmuller and colleagues explore empathic resonance in terms of contagion by laughing and yawning in a group of offenders with psychopathic traits. Compared to the control group, the offenders showed significantly less contagion and less self-reported empathic tendencies. Individuals who rated themselves as more empathic showed more contagion.
The observed reduced resonance in terms of contagion may illuminate the cold-heartedness, with which some psychopathic offenders treat their victims: When embodied experiencing of other's physical and emotional situation is missing, a natural inhibition of violence may be overcome. The small sample size limits the generalisability of these findings.
Plus d'empahie - plus de réplication
La résonance consiste en ce phénomène de mimer en miroir de façon inconsciente les activités motrices de quelqu'un d'autre. D'un autre côté, l'autisme et la schizophrénie sont des traits de personnalités pathologiques associés à un déficit des capacités d'empathie.
Hagenmuller et ses collègues ont entrepris d'examiner la résonance empathique d'un groupe d'adolescents psychotiques en appréciant leur sensibilité à la réplication du bâillement et du rire. Comparativement au groupe contrôle, les malades montre moins de sensiblité à 'la contagion' et de capacité d'empathie.
Cette sensiblité réduite pourrait expliquer la froideur et l'insensibilité qu'ils manifestent vis à vis de leur victime en cas d'agression.

What can other animals tell us about human social cognition?
An evolutionary perspective on reflective and reflexive processing
Hecht EE, Patterson R, Barbey AK.
Graduate Neuroscience Program, Emory University, Atlanta GA, USA.
Front Hum Neurosci

Yawns are a specific example of a contagious facial expression
Human neuroscience has seen a recent boom in studies on reflective, controlled, explicit social cognitive functions like imitation, perspective-taking, and empathy. The relationship of these higher-level functions to lower-level, reflexive, automatic, implicit functions is an area of current research. As the field continues to address this relationship, we suggest that an evolutionary, comparative approach will be useful, even essential. There is a large body of research on reflexive, automatic, implicit processes in animals.
A growing perspective sees social cognitive processes as phylogenically continuous, making findings in other species relevant for understanding our own. One of these phylogenically continuous processes appears to be self-other matching or simulation. Mice are more sensitive to pain after watching other mice experience pain; geese experience heart rate increases when seeing their mate in conflict; and infant macaques, chimpanzees, and humans automatically mimic adult facial expressions.
In this article, Hecht et al. review findings in different species that illustrate how such reflexive processes are related to ("higher order") reflexive processes, such as cognitive empathy, theory of mind, and learning by imitation. They do so in the context of self-other matching in three different domains-in the motor domain (somatomotor movements), in the perceptual domain (eye movements and cognition about visual perception), and in the autonomic/emotional domain. They also review research on the developmental origin of these processes and their neural bases across species.
They highlight gaps in existing knowledge and point out some questions for future research. They conclude that our understanding of the psychological and neural mechanisms of self-other mapping and other functions in our own species can be informed by considering the layered complexity these functions in other species.
Yawns are a specific example of a contagious facial expression that is contagious in several species. In addition to humans, macaques (Paukner and Anderson, 2006), gelada baboons (Palagi et al., 2009), chimpanzees (Anderson et al., 2004; Campbell et al., 2009; Campbell and de Waal, 2011), and dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al., 2008; Harr et al., 2009) also experience contagious yawning. In humans, viewing others' yawns activates precuneus, posterior cingulate, and superior temporal sulcus, all regions that have been associated with "higher-level" forms of social cognition (Platek et al., 2005; Schurmann et al., 2005). Platek (2010) notes that individual humans who are more susceptible to contagious yawning tend to be better at higher-order social cognitive measures like theory of mind processing and self-face recognition, and suggests that yawn contagion may be an evolutionarily old processes that became the basis for these more complex forms of social cognition.
-Arnott SR et al. An investigation of auditory contagious yawning Cognitive, Affective, Behavioral Neurosci 2009;9(3):335-342
 -Anderson JR et al Contagious yawning in chimpanzees The Royal Society Biology Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2004; 271 Suppl 6; S468-470
-Anderson JR et al Psychological influences on yawning in children Current Psychology Letters Behaviour, Brain, Cognition 2003;2:11
-Anderson JR, Matsuzawa T. Yawning: An Opening into Empathy? Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees. T Matsuzawa, M Tomonaga, M Tanaka Editors. Springer 2006
-Caswell TA, The effects of status on yawning behavior. Thesis 1991
-Cialdini RB, McPeek RW. Yawning, Yielding, and Yearning to Yawn 1974 (non published)
-Campbell MW et al. Do chimpanzees yawn contagiously in response to 3d computer animations? 2008
-Cooper NR, Puzzo I, Pawley A Contagious yawning: the mirror neuron system may be a candidate physiological mechanism Medical Hyportheses 2008;71(6):975-976
-Cooper NR, Puzzo I, et al. Bridging a yawning chasm: EEG investigations into the debate concerning the role of the human mirror neuron system in contagious yawning.Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2012;12(2):393-405
-Demuru E, Palagi E. In Bonobos Yawn Contagion Is Higher among Kin and Friends. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e49613
-Dijksterhuis A, Bargh JA The perception-behavior expressway:automatic effects of social perception on social behavior Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 2001;33:1-40.
-Estow, S Jamieson JP, Yates JR Self-monitoring and mimicry of positive and negative social behaviors Journal of Research in Personality 2007;41(2):425-433
-Gallagher HL, Frith CD Functional imaging of theory of mind Trends in Cognitive Scie. 2003;7(2):77-83
-Giganti F, Ziello ME Contagious and spontaneous yawning in autistic and typically developing children CPL 2009
-Giganti F, Zilli I. The daily time course of contagious and spontaneous yawning among humans. J Ethol 2011;29(2):215-216
-Haker H, Kawohl W, Herwig U, Rössler W. Mirror neuron activity during contagious yawning-an fMRI study. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012
-Harr AL, Gilbert VR Do dogs show contagious yawning ? Anim Cogn. 2009;12(6):833-837
-Helt MS, Eigsti IM, Snyder PJ, Fein DA. Contagious yawning in autistic and typical development. Child Dev. 2010;81(5):1620-1631
-Iacoboni M, G Rizzolatti Cortical mechanisms of human imitation Science 24/12/99; 286
-Joly-Mascheroni RM, Senju A, Sheperd AJ Dogs catch human yawns Biology letters Animal Behaviour 2008;4(5):446-448
-Lindsay SR Coping with fear and stress: licking and yawning. Handbook of applied dog behavior and training 2000 
-Madsen EA, Persson T. Contagious yawning in domestic dog puppies (Canis lupus familiaris): the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on low-level imitation in dogs. Anim Cogn. 2012
-Massen JJ, Vermunt DA, Sterck EH. Male Yawning Is More Contagious than Female Yawning among Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40697.
-Nahab FB, Hattori N, Saad ZS, Hallett M Contagious yawning and the frontal lobe: An fMRI study Human Brain Mapping 2009;30:1744-1751
-Norscia I, Palagi E. Yawn Contagion and Empathy in Homo sapiens. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12): e28472
-O'Hara SJ, Reeve AV A test of the yawning contagion and emotional connectedness hypothesis in dogs, Canis familiaris. Animal Behaviour 2011;81:335-340
-Palagi E, Leone A, Mancini G, Ferrari PF. Contagious yawning in gelada baboons as a possible expression of empathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106(46):19262-19567
-Paukner A, Anderson JR Video-induced yawning in stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) Biol Lett 2006;2(1):36-38
-Perkins JR Teaching Dogs to Yawn, Sneeze, and Implications for Preparedness Theory and Observational Learning. In: Kusonose, Ryo and Sato, Shusuke 39th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, Kanagawa, Japan. 20-24 August, 2005
-Platek SM, SR Critton, et al Contagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution Cogn Brain Res 2003;17(2):223-227
-Platek S et al. Neural correlates of self-face recognition 2008 Brain Res;1232:173-184
-Platek S, Mohamed F, Gallup G Contagious yawning and the brain Cognitive Brain Research, 2005;23:448-452
-Schurmann M, Hari R et al Yearning to yawn: the neural basis of contagious yawning NeuroImage 2005;24(4):1260-1264
-Senju A, Maeda M, Kikuchi Y, Hasegawa T, Tojo Y, Osanai H Absence of contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder. Biology Letters 2007;3:706-708
-Senju A, Kikuchi Y, Akechi H et al. Does eye contact induce contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder? J of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2009;39(11):1598-1602
-Silva K, Bessa J, de Sousa L. Auditory contagious yawning in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): first evidence for social modulation. Anim Cogn. 2012.
-Yoon JMD, Tennie C Contagious yawning: a reflection of empathy, mimicry, or contagion. Anim Behav 2010;79:e1-e3
-Walusinski O Echokinetic yawning, theory of mind, and empathy

Augustin Morvan de Lannilis
a little-known rural physician and neurologist
Walusinski O., Honorat J.
Rev Neurol (Paris). 2013;169(1):2-8
History of the Emergence and Recognition of Syringomyelia in the 19th Century
Walusinski O.
Vesalius. 2012;18(1):18-29.
Histoire de l'individualisation de la syringomyélie au XIXe siècle pdf en français
Recurrent partial seizures with ictal yawning as atypical presentation of Hashimoto's encephalopathy
(steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis)
Casciato S, Di Bonaventura C, Lapenta L et al.
Epilepsy Behav.
La vie et l'oeuvre scientifique d'Augustin Morvan
Médecin de campagne à Lannilis
au XIXè siècle
Florian Le Gall
Thèse de doctorat en médecine
Université de Brest, Bretagne occidentale
Faaculté de médecine et des sciences sociales
soutenue le 26 février 2013

Augustin Morvan de Lannilis 1819-1897
Augustin Morvan (1819-1897) was a contemporary of Jean-Martin Charcot who practised medicine in rural Brittany. A perspicacious and astute clinician, he described three clinical pictures not previously isolated: in 1875 the semiology of myxoedema, in 1883 the neurological semiology of syringomyelia which he called "paretic analgesia of the upper extremities", and finally in 1890 the semiology of "fibrillary chorea", currently considered a model of synaptic pathology involving immunological damage to potassium channels and causing (as perfectly described by Morvan) myokymia, autonomic nervous system disturbances and agrypnia. "Fibrillary chorea" is today known as Morvan's syndrome and linked to limbic encephalitis.
augustin morvan
Contemporain de Jean-Martin Charcot, Augustin Morvan (1819-1897) exerça, lui, la médecine dans la campagne bretonne. Perspicace et fin clinicien, il décrivit trois tableaux cliniques non individualisés auparavant: en 1875 la sémiologie du myxœdème, en 1883, la sémiologie neurologique de la syringomyélie qu'il baptisa « paréso-analgésie des extrémités supérieures », puis, en 1890, la sémiologie de « la chorée fibrillaire », reconnue actuellement comme un modèle de pathologie synaptique par atteinte immunitaire de l'activité des canaux potassiques, responsable comme l'avait parfaitement décrit Morvan, de myokimies, de troubles neuro-végétatifs, d'agrypnie et apparentée à "l'encéphalite limbique".

Everyday Mysteries

masque ennui

Dictionnaire du diagnostic
ou l'art de connaître les maladies
et de les distinguer exactement
les unes des autres
Helian DM.
Vincent Imp.

Vapeurs hystériques
s'annoncent ordinairement par des bâillements, des pandiculations, etc...
helian dictionnaire
Ce nom est le même que suffocation utérine, vapeurs hystériques, épilepsie utérine.
La passion hystérique est sujette à des retours ou paroxysmes qui sont plus ou moins fréquents, plus ou moins longs, plus ou moins violents, accompagnés de plus ou moins d'accidents, selon les différents sujets ou les différentes circonstances. Ces retours sont toujours irréguliers et ne garde aucune période certaine; le mal est extrême tant qu'ils durent, mais dès qu'ils sont finis, les malades se trouvent dans un état tranquille, et quelquefois dans un état qui ressemble à celui d'une parfaite santé.
Ces retours s'annoncent ordinairement par des bâillements, des pandiculations, des hoquets, des borborygmes, des rougeurs qui montent tout à coup au visage, accompagnés d'une chaleur vive et bientôt suivi d'une pâleur et d'un froid proportionné à la rougeur et à la chaleur qui ont précédé. Les mêmes retours finissent par des soupirs profonds et lentement répétés; par l'éruption de vents qui sortent de l'estomac, et surtout par l'écoulement plus ou moins abondant d'une humeur séreuse lymphatique et quelquefois sanguinolente qui coule du vagin.

Autres documents mis en ligne ce mois-ci :

Résultats du sondage
 au 31 mars 2013
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Nombre de questionnaires remplis : 6432
Combien de fois bâillez-vous par jour ? <5 = 23,3%.. 5-10 = 22,5%.. 10-15 = 15,4%.. 15-20 = 10,8%.. >20 = 28%
Ressentez-vous des baillements excessifs ?
52,3% = non, tant mieux
37% = oui et je ne sais pas pouquoi
8,9% = oui et je prends des antidépresseurs
1,0% = oui et je prends des anti-épileptiques
6,2% = oui et je prends d'autres médicaments
2,3% = oui et j 'ai des troubles neurologiques
2,3% = oui et j 'ai des troubles hormonaux
1,4% = oui et j 'ai des tics moteurs
1,6% = oui et j 'ai des tocs
déclenchez-vous facilement le bâillement d'autrui ? 74,3%
êtes-vous sensible au bâillement d'autrui ? 68,6%
Horrobin DF.
Ideas in biomedical science: reasons for the foundation of Medical Hypotheses.
Med Hypotheses. 1976;2(1):29-30
"The history of science has repeatedly shown that when hypotheses are proposed, it is impossible to predict which will turn out to be revolutionary and which ridiculous. The only safe approach is to let all see the light and to let all be discussed, experimented upon vindicated or destroyed"
écrits et réalisés par
le Dr Walusinski
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