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Le bâillement, du réflexe à la pathologie
Le bâillement : de l'éthologie à la médecine clinique
Le bâillement : phylogenèse, éthologie, nosogénie
 Le bâillement : un comportement universel
La parakinésie brachiale oscitante
Yawning: its cycle, its role
Warum gähnen wir ?
 
Fetal yawning assessed by 3D and 4D sonography
Le bâillement foetal
Le bâillement, du réflexe à la pathologie
Le bâillement : de l'éthologie à la médecine clinique
Le bâillement : phylogenèse, éthologie, nosogénie
 Le bâillement : un comportement universel
La parakinésie brachiale oscitante
Yawning: its cycle, its role
Warum gähnen wir ?
 
Fetal yawning assessed by 3D and 4D sonography
Le bâillement foetal
http://www.baillement.com
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mise à jour du
1 mai 2010
Equine Colic
Horses's stretching
 
Fureix C et al. Co-occurrence of yawning and stereotypic behaviour in horses. ISRN Zoology. 2011

Chat-logomini

Equine colic is a sometimes serious condition, and can be defined as" any crisis which causes abdominal discomfort in a horse" A more scientific definition, however, is" a spasm of any soft or hard hollow organ, such as the abdomen, that is accompanied by pain".
 
The general term colic is also given to any dysfunction of the digestive system of the horse, including twisting, swelling, infection, or lesions. In such cases, the horse's chronic colic may never be fully alleviated, or understood as to its cause, but there are a number of preventative measures one can take( to be discussed at a later time).
 

cheval

 
The American Association of Equine Practitioners( AAEP) has classified colic into three specific groups- intestinal dysfunctions, intestinal accidents, and enteritis or ulcerations. Intestinal dysfunctions are the most common and mean simply that the horse's bowels are not functioning properly. Intestinal accidents occur less frequently and include displacements, torsions and hernias- which occurs when sections of the intestine become trapped or pinched in body cavities. Enteritis or ulcerations are types of colic related to inflammation, infections, and lesions within the digestive tract.
 
Excessive sweating, pawing, rolling, looking at their belly, lying down at unusual times, and tail wringing usually associated with the stamping of the hind feet( particularly if there are no flies) are all signposts that the horse has some form of abdominal pain. Other symptoms also include repeated yawning or grinding of their teeth, refusal to eat( still apparent from the first sign), a depressed attitude, a change in the appearance or consistency of manure( watery, too solid, etc.
 
Normally, you should hear 2 or 3 gurgles (which signify that food is moving through the digestive system properly) every minute, and a loud growl every 1 to 3 minutes. The horse may also engage in lying down and getting up frequently, nipping at their flanks, stretching more often then usual, pacing, and difficulty with breathing. There are other less common causes as well, including kidney disease, liver disease, tying up( a muscle condition characterized by cramping and acute pain), or ovarian pain, in which a mare may exhibit colic symptoms 3 to 5 days into her heat cycle.
 
Delving into the more scientific side of colic, there was a study done to determine if" deficiencies in the myenteric plexuses of horses might be associated with the incidence of colic." The myenteric plexuses can be defined as" one of the two plexuses in the wall of the alimentary canal." The researchers measured the myenteric plexus density, longitudinal muscle thickness, and neuron density, for both normal horses and those with" acute obstruction and chronic obstruction". The researchers found that although in acute obstruction( cases which have occurred for less then 24 hours) those factors were the same as in normal horses, chronic cases( greater than 24 hours) had a lower neuron density in the pelvic flexure.
 
Horses with strangulating large colon torsion/ volvulus had significantly less myenteric plexus density in certain areas of the colon except the left ventral. Horses that survived despite the strangulation had greater neuron density than those that died. The longitudinal muscle thickness was greater in the pelvic flexure of horses with acute and chronic obstructions than normal horses.
 
Also, they should be prepared to give the horse's temperature, color of mucous membranes and capillary refill time, behavioral signs( kicking, pawing, etc.), digestive noises, bowel movements, any recent changes in the horse's life, and his breeding history. The vet will attempt to pass a nasogastric tube through the nose, esophagus, and then to the stomach so as to relieve pressure on the stomach and small intestine.
 
Since some causes of colic include such things as an environmental or feeding change, they should be minimized much as possible. Another preventative measure is to include regular parasite control, or deworming into horse's lives. If good management policies are followed as they should be in the first place, horses should not develop problems with colic.
 
However, if they do come down with it, today's modern technology is on the side of the horse.

Manifestations physiques des coliques équines
Le cheval se regarde les flancs
Des crottins bouseux
Refus de s'alimenter,
Bruxisme (grincement des dents),
Baisse de forme ,
Décubitus dorsal (le cheval adopte une position antalgique en se couchant sur le dos),
Baîllements à répétition,
Hypersalivation,
Mauvais état général,
Poils de mauvaise qualité
Le cheval a tendance à tourner en ronds:
 
cheval
cheval
poisonning
poisonning