M.R. Zarrindast












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mise à jour du
26 septembre 2004
Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast et al
Department of pharmacology, school of medecine
Teheran University of medical sciences
Teheran Iran


Ghazi-Khansari, M., N. Rezvani, et al. (1998). "Effects of lead exposure on licking and yawning behaviour in rats." Pharmacol Toxicol 83(3): 120-4.

In the present study, effects of lead exposure on licking and yawning behaviour have been studied. The dopaminergic receptor agonist, apomorphine (0.15, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg), induced dose-dependent licking in rats. The maximum response was obtained with 0.5 mg/kg of the apomorphine. Lead acetate (0.05%) exposure significantly increased apomorphine-induced licking. Yawning induced by the D2 dopaminergic agonist, bromocriptine (2, 3, 4, 8 mg/kg), and the cholinergic drug, physostigmine (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg), was significantly decreased by lead acetate (0.05%) exposure. It may be concluded that the behaviour induced by dopaminergic or cholinergic agents can be affected by lead subchronic exposure.

Zarrindast, M. R. and M. Poursoltan (1989). "Interactions of drugs acting on central dopamine receptors and cholinoceptors on yawning responses in the rat induced by apomorphine, bromocriptine or physostigmine." Br J Pharmacol 96(4): 843-8.

1. Yawning was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of low doses of apomorphine to rats. This effect decreased with increasing doses of the drug.
2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment of animals with sulpiride (D2-receptor blocker) reduced the frequency of the yawns induced by apomorphine, while SCH 23390 (D1-receptor blocker, s.c.) pretreatment increased the small number of yawns which was induced by higher doses of apomorphine. Administration of SCH 23390 alone to rats also produced a low degree of yawning.
3. Apomorphine-induced yawning was decreased in animals treated with SK&F 38393 (D1-agonist, i.p.), atropine (i.p.) or theophylline (i.p.).
4. Intraperitoneal injection of bromocriptine (D2-agonist) in rats also induced dose-dependent yawning. The effect was decreased in animals pretreated with sulpiride, while SCH 23390 pretreatment did not change bromocriptine-induced yawning significantly. Pretreatment of animals with SK&F 38393, atropine or theophylline reduced the number of yawns induced by bromocriptine.
5. Physostigmine (i.p.) but not neostigmine (i.p.) also induced yawning. The effect was antagonized by atropine or theophylline but not by sulpiride. Administration of SK}F 38393 decreased yawning induced by physostigmine. This inhibitory influence of SK&F 38393 was reduced by SCH 23390 in pretreated animals. Treatment of animals with SCH 23390 or bromocriptine increased the frequency of yawns induced by physostigmine.
6. It is concluded that D2-receptor activation elicits yawning through influence on cholinergic mechanisms, whereas D1-receptor stimulation decreases yawning behaviour by a negative influence on the cholinergic system.
Zarrindast, M. R. and A. Jamshidzadeh (1992). "Inhibitory effect of morphine on yawning induced by cholinoceptor and dopamine D2 receptor activation in rats." Br J Pharmacol 105(3): 675-8.
1. Bromocriptine (2, 4 and 8 mg kg-1, i.p.), physostigmine (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1, i.p.) and pilocarpine (1, 3 and 5 mg kg-1, i.p.) induced dose-dependent yawning in rats.
2. These responses were reduced in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with morphine.
3. The inhibitory effect of morphine was reversed by naloxone.
4. Naloxone alone induced slight but significant yawning.
5. The present results suggest that morphine inhibits yawning in rats at an opiate receptor downstream from the sites at which cholinoceptor and dopamine D2 activation induce yawning. The anatomical location of these sites remains to be established.

Zarrindast, M. R., V. Toloui, et al. (1995). "Effects of GABAergic drugs on physostigmine-induced yawning in rats." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 122(3): 297-300.

In the present work the effects of GABA agonists and antagonists on yawning induced by physostigmine have been studied. Intraperitoneally (IP) injection of physostigmine (0.05-0.3 mg/kg) induced dose-related yawning in rats. The maximum yawning response was observed with 0.2 mg/kg of the drug. The GABA agonists muscimol (1-4 mg/kg) and baclofen (0.125-1 mg/kg) decreased yawning induced by physostigmine (0.2 mg/kg) dose dependently. Combination of both GABA agonists elicited greater inhibition of yawning. The GABA-A antagonists bicuculline or picrotoxin but not the GABA-B antagonist phaclofen reduced the inhibitory response induced by muscimol, whereas phaclofen but not bicuculline or picrotoxin reduced baclofen's inhibitory effect. Administration of bicuculline, picrotoxin or phaclofen also decreased the yawning induced by physostigmine. However, when the GABA-A and GABA-B antagonists were employed in combination, the inhibitory responses of both drugs were lost. It is concluded that GABA-A and/or GABA-B receptor stimulation may inhibit physostigmine-induced yawning.

Zarrindast, M. R., F. Fatehi, et al. (1995). "Effects of adenosine agents on apomorphine-induced yawning in rats." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 122(3): 292-6.

In the present work, adenosine agonists and antagonists on apomorphine-induced yawning in rats was investigated. Subcutaneous (SC) injection of apomorphine (0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) induced dose-dependent yawning behaviour in rats. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of different doses of the drug (1, 3, 5 micrograms/rat) also caused a dose-related yawning. ICV administration of the adenosine receptor agonists 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) decreased apomorphine-induced yawning. The response induced by the adenosine agonists was reduced by 8-phenyladenosine (8-PT) pretreatment. The yawning induced by SC and ICV administration of apomorphine was decreased by ICV or IP injection of theophylline, respectively. It is concluded that at least A1 adenosine receptors may exert negative influence on the apomorphine-induced yawning. However, the exact mechanism(s) of adenosine receptors in this behaviour remain to be established.

Zarrindast, M. R., R. Adeli, et al. (1995). "Effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on physostigmine-induced yawning." Eur J Pharmacol 276(1-2): 3-7.

The effect of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on physostigmine-induced yawning was investigated in intact or cannulated rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of physostigmine to rats induced yawning dose dependently. I.p. or i.c.v. treatment of the animals with atropine, theophylline, 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) or N6-cyclohexyladenosine reduced the yawning induced by i.p. injection of physostigmine. I.p. administration of theophylline decreased the yawning induced by i.c.v. injection of physostigmine. The inhibitory action of N6-cyclohexyladenosine (i.p.) also was decreased by 8-phenyltheophylline (i.p.) pretreatment. It is concluded that yawning induced by a central cholinergic mechanism and a central adenosine mechanism interacts with the cholinergic-induced behaviour.

Zarrindast, M. R., S. Fazli-Tabai, et al. (1999). "Influence of different adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on physostigmine-induced yawning in rats." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 62(1): 1-5.

In the present study, effects of adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on physostigmine-induced yawning was investigated. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of different doses of physostigmine (0.03, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg) induced yawning in rats. The maximum response was obtained by 0.2 mg/kg of the drug. The alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine, and the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, decreased yawning induced by physostigmine. Prazosin and higher doses of phenoxybenzamine reduced the inhibitory effect of phenylephrine. Higher doses of yohimbine also reduced the clonidine response. The adrenoceptor antagonists, prazosin, phenoxybenzamine, and propranolol, did not significantly alter the physostigmine response. However, yohimbine, or lower doses of prazosin, decreased the physostigmine response. It may be concluded that alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation decreases the physostigmine-induced yawning behavior in rats.

MR Zarrindast , M Sahebgharani , W McIntyre Burnham The effect of electroconvulsive shock seizures on behaviour induced by dopaminergic agonists and on immobility in the Porsolt test Europ Neuro Psychopharmacol 2004; 14; 6; 509-514
Zarrindast M, K Nojoomi et al Nitric oxide agents and apomorphine induced rat behaviors Pharmacology 2004; 71; 169-173