mise à jour du
22 janvier 2003
 Zeitschrift für Tierpsychology
1964; 21; 99-123
Ethology of the Asian Teleost Badis badis
Barlow G
Max-Planck Institut, department of zoology


Chapiter V : Wandering
Any time the male Badis badis comes entirely out of the burrow, except when retrieving larvae, he is said to Wander. Characteristically Wandering is swimming out of the burrow to forage or to patrol the aquarium, Wandering seldom lasts more than 30 seconds to a minute at a time. Prolonged Wandering becomes fluttering up and clown at the glass front of the aquarium.
Parental male rarely Chafe themselves while in the burrow. Chafing is mainly confined to Wandering; then it may become unusually frequent. Up to eleven Chafes have been tallied during one Wander.
The occurrence of Wandering on the day of spawning is variable but usually is low. It tends to be least on the day of hatching, increasing rapidly on the last day of the cycle. A secondary peak, however, would occur on the day of hatching and the day following if the retrieving activities of the male were tallied as Wanderings.
Wandering reflects attachment of male to the clutch. Two factors can be recognized as competing with the attrac tionof the clutch. One is hunger; the male leaves the burrow briefly to catch a worm. Presumably the motivation to feed remains fairly stable throughout the cycle although strong, attachment to the clutch seems to reduce the incidence of foraging. The other plausible cause of Wandering, is sexual motivation. In nonforaging Wanders the male may be searching for a female.
Chapiter VI : Yawning
Yawning was tallied when the mouth was gaped and the median fins at least partially erected. In the two isolated male that were observed, there was no overlap in the ranges of Yawns per hour indicating individual variation. Individual differences are also apparent during the reproductive cycle though they are less marked.
Averaging the values simple curves. On day one Yawning increases after spawning and then declines somewhat as do Fanning and Shuddering. In the days following spawning Yawning continues to increase until the last day of the parental cycle when it becomes less frequent.
The value shown for day one in Figure 14 rnay be too high as a result of sampling error. Other observations for day one resulted in a value of about 8 or less Yawns per hour (2.5 per 20 min.); this reading would smooth the curve in Fig. 14.
The Yawning curve resembles the curve for the duration of Fanning. But yet closer correspondence is achieved by comparing the curves for Yawning and for the tempo; they are near mirror images of one another. When the tempo is slow, Yawning tends to be more frequent, diminishing as the tempo quickens. [...]
Badis badis lives close to the bottom, often in holes and crevices called burrows. Female and immature fish ventilate their burrows, drawing water into them by means of slow (2.5-4.1 beats/sec.), alternate beats of the pectoral fins.
The male actively excavates his burrow. Digging consists of rapid bursts of high-frequency swimming movements. When finished, the male awaits the female. She enters the burrow to spawn with the male and departs immediately thereafter. Parental care is performed by the male alone.
The parental phase usually lasts five to six complete days, the first day being termed day one. On day three the eggs hatch and the larvae swim up fo the ceiling of the burrow. On day six or seven the postlarvae swim out the burrow. Breeding cycles sometimes overlap.
During, the parental phase the eggs are probed, mostly during the first day, and the unfit ones eaten. Organisms such as snails, lecches, and other fish are attacked. When the larvae appear the male retrieves those that stray from the burrow, an action termed carrying. Near the end of the cycle the male comes out of the burrow (wandering) more often.
Shuddering is related to digging, but differs in its taxis ind time of appearance. Exposure to a female increases its incidence. Shuddering is common on day one, diminishes thereafter, but increases slightly on day five or six. It serves to cleanse the eggs,which lie on the floor of the burrow.
Fanning resembles hovering; at high tempos it may grade into shuddering or digging. It produces a current that ventilates the eggs or larvae. Three of its dimensions, time spent fanning (duration), number of bouts, and tempo (median beats per second), were measured. From these data were calculated the average bout duration, median beats per bout, and number of beats per hour. Bout lengths, beats per bout, and duration tend to vary together; they incrense to about the time of hatching, then drop off. Bout length is negatively correlated with tempo although day one is exceptional. The number of bout decreases smoothly to the day of hatching, then holds near constant. The number of beats per hour the best index of output or performance, decreases throughout the parental phase. The tempo is greatest on the day of spawning decreasing, subsequently but rising slightly on the last day or two of the cycle; it resembles the curve for shuddering. The curve for the incidence of yawning mirrors that for the tempo.
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Ethology of the Asian Teleost Badis badis Barlow G Zeitschrift für Tierpsychology1964; 21; 99-123
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